WHAT IS ACUPUNCTURE
The practice of acupuncture and moxibustion is based on the theory of meridians. According to this theory, qi (vital energy) and blood circulate in the body through a system of channels called meridians, connecting internal organs with external organs or tissues. By stimulating certain points of the body surface reached by meridians through needling or moxibustion, the flow of qi and blood can be regulated and diseases are thus treated. These stimulation points are called
acupuncture points, or acupoints.|
Acupoints reside along more than a dozen of major meridians. There are 12 pairs of regular meridians that are systematically distributed over both sides of the body, and two major extra meridians running along the midlines of the abdomen and back. Along these meridians more than three hundred acupoints are identified, each having its own therapeutic action. For example, the point Hegu (LI 4), located between the first and second metacarpal bones, can reduce pain in the head and mouth. The point Shenmen (HT 7), located on the medial end of the transverse crease of the wrist, can induce tranquilization.
In acupuncture clinics, the practitioner first selects appropriate acupoints along different meridians based on identified health problems. Then very fine and thin needles are inserted into these acupoints. The needles are made of stainless steel and vary in length from half an inch to 3 inches. The choice of needle is usually determined by the location of the acupoint and the effects being sought. If the point is correctly located and the required depth reached, the patient will usually experience a feeling of soreness, heaviness, numbness and distention. The manipulator will simultaneously feel that the needle is tightened.
The needles are usually left in situ for 15-30 minutes. During this time the needles may be manipulated to achieve the effect of tonifying the qi. Needle manipulations are generally involved with lifting, thrusting, twisting and rotating, according to treatment specifications for the health problem. Needling may also be activated by electrical stimulation, a procedure usually called electro-acupuncture, in which manipulations are attained through varying frequencies and voltages.
Treatment protocols, frequency and duration are a matter of professional judgment of the practitioner, in consultation with the patient. A common course of treatment may initially involve between ten and fifteen treatments spaced at approximately weekly intervals, and spread out to monthly later in a program.
A professional practitioner will always warn the patient of the possibility of exacerbation at the start of a course of treatment. The patients may find that in the short term after treatment, the symptoms may in fact get worse before an improvement sets in. This is a quite common feature of acupuncture treatment.
Patients should inquire about types of needles used prior to treatment. Most practitioners now use pre-packed and sterilized disposable needles that are only once. If re-useable needles are being used patients should ask to see the sterilization procedures that the practitioner adopts.
The effectiveness of an acupuncture treatment is strongly dependent upon an accurate Chinese medical diagnosis. The needling skills and techniques of the practitioner will also influence greatly the effectiveness of the outcome. Acupuncture can be remarkably effective in many conditions, but in the West, patients often use acupuncture as the last option for their long-term chronic problems. Therefore we sometimes see the treatment as slow and in some cases of marginal benefit. With the gradual establishment of acupuncture as the treatment of choice for many people, the effectiveness of the approach with acute as well as with more chronic conditions is being recognized.
Acupuncture is often conducted in combination with Moxibustion. Moxibustion is the process where moxa sticks, made of dry moxa leaves (Artemisia vulgaris) is ignited and held about an inch above the patients’s skin over specific acupuncture points. Moxa is available in a loose form that can be used for making moxa cones. Alternatively, moxa is packed and rolled in a long stick like a large cigar, about 15-20 cm long and about 1-2 cm in diameter. The purpose of this process is to warm the qi and blood in the channels. Moxibustion is most commonly used when there is the requirement to expel cold and damp or to tonify the qi and blood. A single treatment of moxibustion usually lasts 10-15 minutes. Needle-warming moxibustion combines needling and moxibustion by attaching a moxa stub (about 2 cm long) to an inserted needle. This method enhances the effects of needling and is often used to treat chronic rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis.
Conditions We Treat
Following conditions can be treated in our centre:
|headaches & migraines||cervical spondylosis& neck pain||subhealth
|Sequela of apoplexy /post stroke paralysis||frozen shoulder& shoulder pain||Dysfunction of temporomandibular joint
|Peripheral facial paralysis /bell's palsy||spinal pain& back pain||lose weight /Over weight
|Traumatic paraplegia||sciatica ||allergies
|Infantile Cerebral palsy||knee pain||digestion disorder
|insomnia||tennis elbow||low immunity
|Globus hystericus||soft tissue injury||Stopping smoking
|Anxiety& depression||sports injuries||Facial cosmetic
|panic disorders||Prosopalgia||hair loss
|Alzheimer’s||arthritis& osteoarthritis||Acute conjunctivitis
|conditions of neurology||postoperative syndromes||Rhinallergosis
|Habitual constipation||Intercostal neuralgia||Facial spasm
|respiratory system disorders||Acute and chronic laryngopharyngitis||Obstinate hiccup
|Auditory vertigo||Sterility and Malposition of fetus||acne
|Premenstrual tension syndrome||Hyperplasia of mammary glands||shingles
|Perimenopausal syndrome||Infantile enuresis||Neurodermatitis
|irregular menstruation||Prostatitis||ADHD in children
About some acupuncture search result and report
The therapeutic use of traditional Acupuncture began in China about 2500 years ago. By the 16th Century acupuncture made its may into Europe and within the past four decades, acupuncture has become a valued and reliable form of health care worldwide. In the U.S, Acupuncture has moved from being considered "fringe" medicine in the 1970's toward mainstream medicine more recently.
A 1997 NIH statement offers the following perspective:
"There is sufficient evidence of acupuncture's value to expand its use into conventional medicine and to encourage further studies into its physiology and clinical value".
Patients and Western Health Practitioners alike are beginning to trust and understand how Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine will benefit them; Acupuncture simply operates within a different paradigm to Western Medicine yet its foundation is fundamentally clinical efficacy and empiricism, the very same hallmarks of western medical science.
The following is a list composed by the World Health Organization (WHO) of Indications for which acupuncture has been proved, through Clinical trials, to be Effective;
Updated: Includes the list of Conditions presented to the US FDA in 1994 "Acupuncture Efficacy" (Peer-reviewed literature)
|Pain||Facial area, Head (ache), Knee, Low back, Neck, Dental, TMJ, Periarthritits of the Shoulder, Postoperative, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Sciatica, Tennis Elbow, Sprain, Cervicobrachial syndrome, Myofascial, Osteoarthritis (pain), RSD, Fibromyalgia
|G.I.||Peptic Ulcer, Acute and Chronic Gastritis, Gastro-Esophageal spasm, Dysentery, Biliary Colic, Hiccough, Acute and Chronic Duodenal ulcer (pain), Gastric Hyperacidity, Acute and Chronic Colitis, Constipation, Diarrhea
Medicine||Allergic Rhinitis, Adverse Reaction to Chemotherapy or Radiation, Depression, Leukopenia, Morning Sickness, Nausea/Vomiting, Renal Colic, Acute Tonsilitis, Acute Sinusitis, Acute Bronchitis, Common Cold, Cataract, Gingivitis, Trigeminal Neuralgia, (early) Facial Palsy, Peripheral Neuropathies, Paresis following Stroke, Intercostal Neuralgia, Substance Dependence, Bladder Instabilities
|Cardio.||Cerebrovascular Stroke, Hypertension, Hypotension
|OB/Gyn.||Dysmenorrhea, Induction of Labor, Correction of Malposition of fetus (Breech)
The following is the W.H.O list of indications for which 'a therapeutic effect of Acupuncture' has been shown:
Abdominal,Cancer-Related, Ear, Radicular, Spinal (Cervical - Thoracic- Lumbar )
Bell's Palsy, Facial Spasm, Fibro-myalgia, Neuralgia, RSD, Dementia, Raynaud's Syndrome
Alcohol,Drug,Tobacco Dependence, Stress Syndrome, Diabetes (NID) Obesity, Insomnia, Osteoarthritis, Post-operative, Convalescence, TMJD, Schizophrenia, Tourette syndrome, Asthma, Male Sexual Dysfunction, Retention of Urine, Prostatitis, Urolithiasis
Acne Vulgaris, Pruritis, Neurodermatitis
Eye Pain, Nose Bleeds, Herpes Zoster, Menières
Ulcerative Colitis, Cholecystitis, Cholelithiasis
Female Infertility, PMS, recurrent UTI, PCOS, Labor pain, Urethral Syndrome
Pain Conditions which the British Medical Acupuncture Society and the Acupuncture Association of Chartered Physiotherapists (UK) list "as suitable for Acupuncture treatment";
Muskulo-skeletal pain , Back pain, Shoulder pain, Leg pain, Chronic Muscle Strain, Sports Injury, Arthritic & Rheumatic pain, Acute Injury, Whiplash, Chronic Injuries, Joint pain, Headache, Migraine.
Healthcare and Treatment with Acupuncture and TCM
Acupuncture is adapted to both healthcare and medical treatment. The concrete detail of how to better health condition and treat various diseases is not discussed in this paper, where we list only the scope of acupuncture treatment:
Infectious diseases: influenza and Mumps;
Diseases of respiratory system: Acute and chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma;
Diseases of circulatory system:Arrhythmia, Coronary heart disease, hypertension;
Disease of digestive system: Acute gastritis, Chronic gastritis, Gastric and duodenal ulcer, Gastroptosis, Acute and chronic enteritis, Biliary tract infection and cholelithiasis and Habitual constipation;
Diseases of blood system: Leukocytopenia and Primary thrombocytopenic purpura;
Diseases of urinary and reproductive systems: Infection of urinary tract, Urinary tract stones, Retention of urine, Prostatitis, Seminal emission and Impotence;
Endocrine and metabolism diseases: Hyperthyroidism, diabetes and Simple obesity;
Neural and mental diseases: Prosopalgia, Peripheral facial paralysis/ bell's palsy, Sciatica, Intercostal neuralgia, Angioneurotic headache, Sequela of apoplexy, Insomnia, Globus hystericus and Schizophrenia;
Diseases of locomotor system: Cervical spondylopathy& neck pain, Dysfunction of temporomandibular joint, Stiff neck, Scapulohumeral periarthritis/ frozen shoulder & shoulder pain, External humeral epicondylitis/ tennis elbow, Thecal cyst, Gonitis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Lumbago/back pain, Acute lumbar sprain and Sprain of soft tissues of the limbs;
Diseases of surgery and dermatology: Acute mastadenitis, Hyperplasia of mammary glands, Hemorrhoids, Urticaria, Herpes zoster and Flat wart;
Diseases of eyes, ears, nose and throat: Acute conjunctivitis, Auditory vertigo, Nasosinusitis, Rhinallergosis, Acute and chronic laryngopharyngitis;
Gynecological diseases: Dysmenorrhea, Irregular menstruation, Amenorrhea, Premenstrual tension syndrome, Perimenopausal syndrome, Sterility and Malposition of fetus;
Pediatric diseases: Infantile convulsion, Infantile diarrhea, and Infantile enuresis;
Other diseases: High fever, Coma, Obstinate hiccup and Stopping smoking
Meridians and collaterals-the pathways to link the whole body
The meridian-collateral theory is concerned with the physiological functions and the pathological changes of the meridian-collateral system, and their relationships with zang-fu organs. It is an important component of the theoretical system of TCM. And it is considered as a theoretical basis of all clinical subjects of TCM, especially that of acupuncture, moxibustion, tuina and qigong. Besides, it guides the clinical practice of other branches of TCM.
The meridians and collaterals are pathways along which qi and blood circulate through the whole body. The meridians are the major trunks of the meridian-collateral system and run longitudinally within the body, while the collaterals are the branches of the meridians and are reticularly distributed over the whole body. Hence, the meridians and collaterals, connecting the zang-fu organs with extremities, the upper with the lower and the internal with ihe external portions of the body, make all the body's organs and tissues an organic whole.
The meridian-collateral system consists of meridians and collaterals as well as their subsidiary parts. This system, internally, links the zang-fu organs and, externally, joins the tendons, museles and skin.
The meridians are classified into three categories: the regular meridians and the extra meridians and the divergent meridians. There are twelve regular meridians, namely the three yin meridians as well as the three yang meridians of the hands and feet. They are known collectively as "the twelve regular meridians", which are the main passages for qi and blood circulation and start and terminate at given seats, run along fixed routes and meet indefinite orders. They are directly connected with the relevant zang-fu organs. The eight extra meridians are composed of Du,Ren, Chong, Dai, Yinqiao, Yangqiao, Yinwei and Yangwei meridians. They are interlated with the twelve regular meridians and perform the functions of dominating, connecting and adjusting the twelve regular meridians. And they are not directly related to the internal organs in addition, the twelve divergent meridians are the extensions of the twelve meridians. They originate from the limbs, run deeper into the zang-fu organs and emerge from the shallow neck. Their action is to enhance the Links between every pair of meridians exteriorly-interiorly related in the twelve meridians and complement the organs and bodily areas to which the regular meridians can not get.
Specific and profound TCM
TCM, one of China's splendid cultural heritages, is the science dealing with human physiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases. TCM summed up the experience of the Chinese people in their long struggle against diseases and, under the influence of ancient naive materialism and dialectics, evolved into a unique, integral system of medical theory through long clinical practice. During several thousand years it has made great contributions to the promotion of health, the proliferation and prosperity of the Chinese nation, and the enrichment and development of world medicine as well. The formation of the theoretical system of TCM was greatly influenced by ancient Chinese materialism and dialectics. The theoretical system takes the physiology and pathology of zang-fu organs and meridians as its basis, and TDS as its diagnostic and therapeutic features.
TCM has its own specific understanding both in the physiological functions and pathological changes of the human body and in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. TCM regards the human body itself as an organic whole interconnected by zang-fu organs, meridians and collaterals.And TCM also holds that the human body is closely related to the outside world. In regard to the onset and development of a disease, TCM attaches great importance to the endogenous pathogenic factors, namely the seven emotion, but it by no means excludes the exogenous pathogenic factors, namely the six pathogens. In diagnosis, TCM takes the four diagnostic methods ( inspection, auscultation ant olfaction,inquiry, pulse-taking and palpation as its principal tcchniques, eight principal syndromes as its general guideline, and differentiation of syndrome according to the zang-fu theory, differentiation of syndromes according to the six-meridian theory, and differentiation of syndromes according to the theory of wei, qi, ying and xue as its basic theories of the differentiation of syndromes. It also stresses the prevention and preventive treatment of disease, and puts forward such therapeutic principles as "treatment aiding at the root cause of disease". "strengthening vital qi and dispelling pathogens, regulating yin and yang and treating diseases in accordance with three conditions" (i. e. the climatic and seasonal conditiont, geographic localities and the patient's constitution).
These characteristicts, however, can be generalized as the holistic concept and treatment by differentiation of syndromes (TDS)
What is The Holistic Concept?
"The holistic concept" is a general idea of the unity and integrity within the human body and its close relationship with the outer world. The human body is composed of various organs and tissues, each having its own distinct function, which is a component part of the life activities of the whole body. And in TCM the human body is regarded as an organic whole in which its constituent parts are inseparable in structure, interrelated and interdependent in physiology, and mutually influential in pathology. Meanwhile, man lives in nature, and nature provides the conditions indispensible to man's survival. So it follows that the human body is bound to be affected directly or indirectly by the changes of nature, to which the human body, in turn, makes corresponding responses. TCM says: "Physicians have to know the law of nature and geographical conditions when diagnosing and treating diseases." That's why TCM not only stresses the unity of the human body itself but also attaches great importance to the interrelationship between the body and nature in diagnosing and treating diseases.
What is TDS?
TCM, on the other hand,is characterized by treatment by differentiation of syndromes (TDS). Differentiation means comprehensive analysis, while syndrome refere to symptoms and signs. So differentiation of syndromes implies that the patient's symptoms and signs collected by the four diagnostic methods are analyzed and summarized so as to identify the etiology, nature and location of a disease, and the relation between vital qi and pathogens, thereby determining what syndrome the disease belongs to. By treatment is meant selecting the corresponding therapy according to the outcome of differentiating syndromes. Taken as a whole, TDS means diagnosis and treatment based on overall analysis of symptoms and signs.
As concerns the relationship between "disease" and "treatment", TCM takes two different clinical ways on the basis of TDS. One is "treating the same disease with different therapies", by which is meant that the same disease may manifest itself in different syndromes at different stages or under different conditions. Therefore, the therapies of the same diease should be adopted towards different therapies according to the patient's constitution, the geographical environment, the climatic and seasonal changes. Take flu for example, it may be caused by wind-cold,wind-heat, summer-heat and dampness or other pathogens. So is advisable to adopt dispersing wind-cold, eliminating wind-heat, clearing away summer-heat and dampness respectively. The other is called "treating different diseases with the same therapy", by which is meant that different diseases manifesting themselves in the same syndrome may be treated with the same therapy. For example prolapse of the rectum due to protracted diarrhea and hysteroptosis are two different diseases. However, if they are both marked by themselves in the same syndrome of qi of sinking of the middle energizer, they can be treated in the same therapy by lifting qi of the middie energizer. From the above it becomes obvious that TCM does not focus its attention on similarities or dissimilarities between diseases but on the differences between the syndromes. Generally speaking, the same syndromes are treated with basically same therapies, while different syndromes with different ones.
To sum up, the principle that different contradictions in essence are handled by different methods in the course of development of a disease is the core of TDS.
YIN AND YANG-THE LAW OF NATURE
Yin and yang, which come from ancient Chinese philosophy, are a general term for two opposites of interrelated things or phenomena in the natural world. At first, their connotations were quite simple, referring to the two opposite sides of an object. The side facing the sun is yang and the reverse side is yin in the course of long practice and observation, the ancient Chinese people came to understand that the opposition and wax-wane of yin and yang are inherent in all things. Yi Zhuan says, "Yin and yang are what is called Dao", (Dao means the basic law of the unity of opposites in the universe). In other words, "Everything in the universe contains yin and yang." And they further believed that yin and yang can not only represent two opposite objects but also be used to analyze two opposite aspects existing in a single entity. Generally speaking, things or phenomena which are dynamic, bright, hot, functional, etc..., pertain to the category of yang, while those that are static, dark, cold, substantial, etc. , pertain to that of yin. The yin-yang theory holds that the development and changes of everything in the universe result from the unity of opposites be tween yin and yang. Su Wen says: "yin and yang are the law of heaven and earth, the principles of all things, the parents of all changes, the origin of life and death... " The yin-yang theory is an important constituent of the theoretical system of TCM and runs through every aspect of the system. It is used to explain physiology and pathology of the body and to guide clinical diagnosis and treatment.
The Five-element Theory-natural Philosophy in Ancient China
The five elements refer to wood, fire, earth, metal, and water and their motions. The five element theory resulted from the observations and studies of the natural world by the ancient Chinese people in the course of their lives and productive labor. Since ancient time, wood, fire, earth, metal and water have been considered as basic substances to constitute the universe and they are also indispensable for life. Zuo's Interpretation of the Spring and Autumn Annals (Zuo Zhuan) says:" The five kinds of materials in nature are all used by people. None of them cannot be dispensed with". Another classical work Shang shu states: "water and fire are used for cooking, metal and wood are used for cultivating and earth gives birth to all things, which are used by people." These five kinds of substances are of the relationships of generation and restriction and are in constant motion and change. In TCM the five-element theory, as a theoretical tool, is used to explain and expound different kinds of medical problems by analogizing and deducing their properties and interrelations. It also used to guide clinical diagnosis and treatment. The theory, like the theory of yin-yang, has become an important component of the theoretical system of TCM.
The Zangfu (internal organs) System
The term "Zangfu" is a collective name for the various Yin and Yang organs identified in TCM. A Yin organ is called a Zang and a Yang organ is called a Fu. Each organ is considered to have its own functions, but these functions have a far wider scope than the purely physiological function described in Western medicine.
The Zang consists of the five solid (Yin) organs. They are Spleen, Heart, Lungs, Liver, Kidneys
A sixth organ called the Xin-Bao (Pericardium), not described in Western physiology, is also considered as a Yin organ (Zang). In general, TCM considers the Zang to stay deeply in the body and to be concerned with the manufacture, storage and regulation of the fundamental substances. For example, the Heart makes blood, the Lung governs Qi and the Kidney stores Jing or Essence. Each Zang is also correspondent to a sense organ and have an associated spiritual aspect. For example, the Liver connects to the eye and is associated with anger.
The Fu consists of the six hollow (Yang) organs. They are Small Intestine , Bladder ,Stomach , Large Intestine ,Gall Bladder , San Jiao or Triple Burner (also not described in Western physiology)
In general, Fu organs have the functions of receiving, separating, distributing and excreting body substances.
The Root of Life-Qi
In TCM books, qi is always mentioned in the same breath with blood and body fluid, for they are all the fundamental substances constituting the human body and maintaining its life activities. However, among them qi is particularly important for the human body. That is why TCM often explains the life activities of the human body in the viewpoint of qi. For this reason, ZhangJingyue said: "Man's life relies entirely upon this qi." Classic onMedical Problems states:"qi is ihe root of the human body; once the root is damaged, the stem and leaves would turn withered". And, also, Basic Questions points out : "One's life is the combination of qi of heaven and earth".
Qi in the human body is composed of congenital qi and acquired qi. The former is inherited from one's parents before birth,the latter is derived from cereal essence transformed by the spleen and stomach and fresh air inhaled from the natural world by the lung. Therefore, qi is a combination of three kinds of factors. It is easy to see that the source or production of qi is related to innate endowment, acquired nutrition and environmental conditions, and the actions of the kidney, spleen, stomach, lung as well.
Congenital qi and acquired qi complement each other. Congenital qi is the material foundation for the production of acquired qi, and acquired qi continuously supplements congenital qi with nourishments. Both of them are, therefore, described as an interdependent relation-congenital qi promoting acquired qi,which, in turn, nourishing congenital qi.
BLOOD AND BODY FLUID-THE MATERIAL BASIS OF LIFE ACTIVITIES
Blood, circulating in the vessels, is a red liquid substance rich in nutrients. It is one of the indispensable substances that constitute the human body and maintain its life activities. Blood originates from cereal essence transformed by the spleen and stomach, and has the functions of nourishing and moistening the whole body.
Nutritive qi and body fluid are thought of as the material basis of blood formation. As both of them derive from cereal essence, the quality of the food intake and the conditions of the spleen and the stomach are bound to have a direct bearing on blood formation. Either a long-term malnutrition or a lasting hypofunction of the spleen and stomach may cause insufficient blood formation, resulting in blood deficiency. That's why TCM states" Reinforcing the spleen and the stomach enables blood to develop spontaneously."
THE CAUSES TO INDUCE DISEASES——ETIOLOGY
Etiology is defined as various kinds of factors that cause diseases. As TCM sees it, etiology mainly includs the six exogenous pathogens, pestilence,(epidemic pathogenc factors ) the seven emotions, emotional frustration, improper diet, overwork, maladjustment between work and rest, traumatic injuries, insect or animal bites, phlegm retention, blood stasis, etc. Zhang ZhongJing of the Eastern Han Dynasty pointed out: "Despite numerous diseases, they would not exceed three categories". Up to the Song Dynasty, Chen Wuze put forward the theory of the three categories of etiologic factors i. e., exogenous pathogenic factors, endogenouspathogenic factors and non-endo-exogenous pathogenic factors. To be more specific, six pathogenic factors invading the body from the outside pertain to exogenous pathogenic factors; the seven emotions directly involving the internal organs are attributed to endogenous pathogenic factors; other pathogenic factors, such as improper diet, overwork, traumatic injury, insect and animal bites, etc. , are said to be non-endo-exogenous pathogenic factors. "The theory of the three categories of etiologic factors" caused strong repercussions in later ages and promoted the research into the etiology.
What is meant by pathogenesis?
Pathogenesis is the mechanism of the occurrence, development and outcome of diseases. The occurrence, development and outcome of diseases are closely related both to the body's vital qi and to the nature of the pathogenic factors. When the pathogens attack the human body, the body's vital qi is bound to rise against the pathogens, forming the conflict between vital qi and pathogens. Their conflict is bound to destroy the relative balance of yin and yang to cause the dysfunction of the zang-fu organs and meridians, or the disturbance of qi and blood. Thus bringing about a variety of local or general pathological changes. Notwithstanding various diseases and complicated clinical manifestations, their changes of pathogenesis, in general, are inseparable from the excess or deficiency between the vital-qi and the pathogens, the imbalance of yin and yang, or the abnormably of qi and blood and the dysfunction of the zang-fu organs and meridians.
In TCM, the diagnostic process is considered in four areas - known as the Four Examinations. These are:
Looking: complexion, eyes, tongue, nails, hair, gait, stature and affect?
Hearing and Smelling: sound of voice and breath, odour of breath, skin?
Interrogation/asking: current complaints, health history, family health history, patterns of sleep, appetite, digestion, bowel movement, bladder, sweat, pain, emotional features, lifestyle features and gynaecological features
Touching: palpation of the body to discover body temperature, body moisture, pain; and taking of the pulse (pulse reading)
DIFFERENTIATlON OF SYNDROMES-THE PRECONDITION FOR TREATMENT
Differentiation of syndromes (bian zheng) in TCM is a method to analyse and recognize the syndrome of disease. In otherwords, it is also a process in which the location, nature, occurrence and development of a disease as well as the condition of vital qi and pathogenic factors are identified according to the clinical data obtained from the four diagnostic methods. From the above it becomes obvious that differentiation of syndromes is the premise and foundation of treatment. Correct differentiation and appropriate treatment are the prerequisite for achieving the hoped-for results. There are a number of methods to differentiate syndromes in TCM, such as differentiation of syndromes according to the eight principles; differentiation of syndromes according to the theory of qi, blood and body fluid; differentiation of syndromes according to tbe zang-fu theory; differentiation of syndromes according to the theory of six meridians; differentiation of syndromes according to the theory of wei, qi, ying and xue, and differentiation of syndromes according to the theory of triple energizer. Each method, while having its own features and laying stress They should be applied flexibly and accurately so as to understand a disease comprehensively, thereby providing the basis for treatment.